A cross sectional study was carried out from December 2018 to March 2019 in Thoothukudi town and its surrounding areas in order to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and conducting antibacterial activity on the isolated pathogens. The study populations comprised of lactating dairy cows that were found in different age groups, parities and lactation stages. The milk samples were aseptically collected from a total of 120 quarters of teats from 30 apparently healthy cows. When the collected milk samples were screened by using the California Mastitis Test (CMT), 43.3 % of quarters and 53% of cows were found to be positive. The bacterial purification and identification depended on the morphology of colonies, catalase production, the response to Gram-stain and biochemical tests. The commonly recovered organisms were Staphylococcus aureus, CNS (Coagulase negative Staphylococcus), Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. Among the isolated pathogens, S. aureus, CNS, S.uberis, Bacillus and E. coli were the most prevalent that accounted 55.47%, 15.74%, 12.7%, 11.89%,8.93% and 5.75%, respectively. The antibacterial activity against the isolated bacteria was evaluated by determining the disc diffusion method. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of selected medicinal plants (Heliotropium curassavicum and Alternanthera sessilis) were obtained by extraction in cold maceration method. Both the extracts were assessed for their antibacterial activity against isolated subclinical mastitis pathogens. The isolation of pure pathogens and testing their antimicrobial susceptibility are vital to effectively treat and control the disease.
The goat contributes about 20.4% to the total meat production in Nepal and ranks second after buffalo (54.3%). Fascioliasis is a widely distributed and economically important parasitic disease of ruminants. A cross sectional study was conducted using sedimentation technique for faecal examination to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis in the goats. In total, 1000 animals were sampled from households in different five sites (i.e. Inaruwa, Narsingh, Laukhi, Sahebganj and Kushaha) in Sunsari district, at four separate times from March, 2017- February, 2018. Presence of a fluke egg or more was considered as positive. From each site, 25 farmers/households were selected randomly and 50 samples were collected at each time period, for a total of 200 samples per site and 1,000 samples overall. The overall prevalence of fascioliasis was found 35% (350/1000; CI at 95%: 32.0-38.0) in goat. Faecal samples from Sahebganj and Kushaha had shown significantly higher prevalence 55% (110/200) and 51% (102/200), respectively of eggs of Fasciola spp followed by Laukhi (31.5%), Narsingh (23.5%) and Inaruwa (14%) [P value<0.05: 0.00001 at 95% confidence interval and Chi-square:109.14]. Rainy season and adult goats having above 6 months old showed high prevalence 58% and 39.6%, respectively. Seasons and age showed significant different at 95% confidence interval and p-value <0.05 was 0.00001. Variation in prevalence was also significant in relation to age and body condition score (BCS) of the animals. Therefore, it is essential to make effective control strategies against fascioliasis in goats. Since the fascioliasis in goats is highly endemic, thus strategic deworming in high risk period is recommended along with measure to prevent pasture contamination with goat feces.
This study aimed at analyzing the structure of red pepper marketing in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data collected with the aid of questionnaires administered to one hundred and four (104) respondents using purposive and simple random sampling procedure. The analytical tools for analysis were Descriptive statistics to describe the marketing channels and inferential statistics (Ginicoefficient) to examine the market structure. The study revealed that the marketing channels were much shorter with red pepper marketing and retailers are typically playing the key role in marketing related activities in the study area.The concentration of market sales among red pepper marketers was high asGinicoefficient value was 0.71535.This is an indication that there is red pepper marketer's exercising control over the market price. In other words, there is a reflection of high level of income inequality from sales among the marketers in the study area.The study concludes that there is a reflection of high level of income inequality from sales among the marketers in the study area. The study therefore, recommended that there is need to reduce the oligopolistic market structure in the study area.
Sweet corn can be in cultivation on the highlands and lowlands. Now sweet corn planted on the rice fields after rice cultivation. The composition of the weeds on crops monocultures in a long time indicates the composition is lower than with the planting pattern rotation. The planting pattern changes also change the composition of the dominant type of weeds, from the types of weeds-leaf replaced by weeds the grass. This weed community differences were suspected because of the difference in the processing of land, distance planting, the age of the plants when observation and the condition of land used. The research was carried out on sweet corn fields in two sub-districts which represented the condition of wetlands and dry land, namely Ciledug and Pabedilan sub-districts. At each location the sample was weighed diagonally (5 times) for each plot of potato cropping using the iron squares of size 0.5 m x 0.5 m. Field data was used to summed dominance ratio and Coefficient community value. The results of this study showed that based on Ciledug with the composition of 15 broad leaves weed, seven grasses weed species and three sedges weed species. At dryland conditions this was one dominat weed species, namely Digitariasp with the value of SDR 13.27%. While in wetland there were 9 broad leaves weeds species, five grasses weed specie and two sedges weed species. Weeds dominant at wetland this was Fimbristylis sp. with SDR value of 34,14% which is the weeds the sedges. on dry land there were 11 broad leaves of weeds, 7 grasses weed species and 1 sedges weed specie. In the wet land 5 broad leaves of weeds, 4 grasses weed species and 2 sedges weed specie. Weed dominat in e sub-district Pabedilan was Digitariasp weed with the value of SDR 11.64%. In wetland Fimbristylissp is dominant weeds with the value of the largest SDR 19.88%. With composition weed in wetland 5 broad leaves weed, 4 grasses weed species and two sedges weed species. The comparison of coefficient communities value (C) between dryland and wetland of Ciledug was of 62.16% which means that, Coefficient communities value (C) between dryland and wetland of Pabedilan was of 48.21%. Deversity weed population in Ciledug and Pabedilan was different.
The study examined the effectiveness of innovation system of fish marketing in Mubi Zone, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Specifically, linkages among and between actors, their perception and socio economic characteristics were examined. Data was collected from 96 respondent using structured questionnaires. This was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics usingpurposive and simple random sampling technique. The study revealed that about 63.54% of the respondents were male while the remaining percentages (36.46%) were female. The result shows that majority of respondent 89.52% had formal education but do not belong to any membership association and about 97.92% of the respondents strongly perceive that they will adopt and Implement new Innovations introduced to them. The result of linear regression reveals that there were significant differencesin linkages between actors. R2 was 99.46% and F- value (17771.14), this indicate that any increase in the value of any of the significant variables will increase effectiveness of linkages which implies efficient technology transfer in the innovation system. Furthermore the coefficient of age, household size, Experience, marital status, membership of association, quantity of fish produced, and spread of innovation, were found to be significant at 1% and 5% while, level of education and quantity of fish sold were not significant. The result revealed a significant relationship at 5% level of significance (P<0.05) between some socio-economic characteristics of respondents and the level of linkage/interaction in fish innovation system. However, there is need for policy personnel to design policies and programs to strengthen innovative capabilities among all actors in the innovation system; create more space for public/private sector service providers to participate/collaborate with smallholder innovation networks to sustain their livelihoods and in turn create more jobs.
More than 95% of Indonesia's population makes rice a staple food so that the need exceeds production, as a result, rice imports continue to be carried out by the government. Efforts should be made to increase production through genetic improvement of plants. This study aims to determine genetic diversity, heritability, correlation and path analysis between yields and yield components of local rice varieties. The study was conducted in the Sidondo Experimental Garden, Sidondo Village, Biromaru District, Sigi Regency, Central Sulawesi Province-Indonesia, from March to August 2015. Using a Randomized Block Design with 22 varieties of treatments and three groups so that there were 66 treatment units. The results showed that genetic influences were more dominant than environmental influences in expressing all observed characteristics except panicle length. Plant height, leaf area, age of flowering, age of harvest, angle of leaf flag, number of filled grains and panicle exit age have high heritability and genetic advance. Leaf width and weight of 1000 seeds have a high genetic correlation and are very real on yield. The weight of 1000 seeds has a high genetic correlation coefficient and a high direct effect on yield so that it can be used as a direct selection criterion to increase rice yield.