To estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and risk factors for seropositivity in pigs and goats in Dhankuta district in Nepal in 2018, 300 sera samples (Pigs-200 and goats-100) were randomly selected and were tested by using Lateral Flow Chromatographic Immunoassay (Rapid Toxo Ab test card, China). Samples were collected from Pakhribas, Hile, Sidhuwa, Dhankuta of Dhankuta district and test was done at laboratory of Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Pakhribas, Dhankuta. The disease prevalence and p-value (<0.05) were calculated to analyze the influence of risk factors on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis. Out of 300 tested sera, 21% samples were infected for T. gondii. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was found high 26% (52/200) in pigs whereas 11% (11/100) in goats. Considering risk factors, seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was statistically significantly higher in pregnant 41.3% (p=0.00013) followed by non pregnant 21.7% and 10.8% in other male and female. Similarly, females were found 2.6 times more (prevalence: 26.5%) seropositivity compared with males (prevalence: 10%). High prevalence 27.7% was found in 6-18 months old animals. Additionally, presence of cats in surrounding areas, the pasturing system and the hygiene in the farms were assessed as factors for contributing the disease. This study indicates that exposure of pigs and goats to oocysts of T. gondii is widespread, suggesting that the consumption of raw and undercooked pork and chevon might be a source of human toxoplasmosis. Risk factor information can be used to design control programs to reduce exposure.
The presence of weeds in lowland rice plantations can result in a decrease in yields both in quality and quantity, so weeds in cultivation should absolutely be controlled. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the butyl cyhalophop herbicide to control weeds in lowland rice cultivation. The experiment was conducted in the District of Rajagaluh, Majalengka Regency, West Java, from May to September 2019. The design of the test used was a randomized block design with 4 replications and 7 treatments. The treatment consisted of a dose of a butyl cyhalophop herbicide, a dose of 50; 75; 100; 125; 150 g/ha, manual weeding and control treatment (without weeding).The results showed that the butyl cyhalophop herbicide from 50 g / ha to 150 g / ha can control common weeds in lowland rice plants such as: Echinochloa cruss-galli, Ludwigia octovalvis, Monochoria vaginalis, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus iria, and other weeds. Butyl cyhalophop herbicide from a dose of 50 g / ha to 150 g / ha does not cause poisoning in rice plants to 5 week after application. Treatment of Butyl cyhalophop herbicide from a dose of 50 g / ha to 150 g / ha can replace manual weeding and give no different rice yields.
This study aims to examine the distribution patterns and marketing efficiency of red onion in the highlands of Majalengka Regency. This research uses primary and secondary data. Primary data collection is conducted by an interview using a questionnaire that has been previously prepared. Respondents in this study include agro-input actors, producers or red onion farmers, market participants (wholesalers, cooperatives/farmer groups, retailers), and other resource persons needed. Secondary data are obtained from the Central Statistics Agency, the Department of Agriculture in Majalengka Regency, the Provincial Agriculture Office, and other related agencies. Sample research of onion farmers as the main business actors is determined by a non-probabilistic basis with an entry point, then forward and backward tracing is carried out using snowball sampling to get the sample at the next point. This study uses descriptive analysis techniques to determine the distribution pattern of red onion marketing in the highlands of Majalengka Regency. Meanwhile, marketing efficiency is determined through an analysis of marketing margins, profits, farmers share, and marketing efficiency. The results show there are 3 distribution patterns of red onion marketing in Majalengka Regency, namely the marketing channel of pattern 1 (farmers→cooperatives (farmer groups)→retailers at Maja market→consumers), pattern 2 (farmers→ retailers at Maja market →consumers) andpattern3 (farmers→wholesalers→ retailers at Maja market →consumers). Results of efficiency analysis show that all marketing distribution patterns are categorized as efficient.