Colostrum feeding is of great importance in the prevention of offspring losses in ruminants. Colostrum has great importance in the development and viability of the offspring. The importance of colostrum comes from its nutrients. Goat milk has rapidly increase especially in the last 10 or 20 years with the importance given to public nutrition and the benefits of goat milk. It is suggested that newborn babies can get some nutrients they need from cow's milk in goat's milk in cases where they cannot get breast milk and during childhood development. Although there is 1.6 percent protein in breast milk, this rate is 4.3 in goat milk. Easy digestion of goat milk protein has a practical and special place in the nutrition of infants and diets of sick and old people. The colostrum composition are highly variable due to a number of factors, including individuality, breed, parity, pre-partum nutrition, length of the dry period of cows and time post-partum. Animal material healthy and similar characteristics of the 15 head Holstein cow and 15 head Saanen goat breed were used. These cows and goats were selected among the first to give birth. Colostrum samples were taken at birth at 8 and 16 hours after parturition. The pH, protein, fat, moisture, ash and fatty acid analyzes of colostrum samples were carried out in the laboratory of Çukurova University Fisheries Faculty. The aim of this study was to compare the faty acids contents of cow colostrum and goat which is most frequently used in human nutrition.
Plantain banana (Musa paradisiaca)cultivation is booming in many underdeveloped countries such as Côte d'Ivoire. It requires application of chemical fertilizers that make soil salinity and lead to lower plant yields. Aim of this work is to understand behavior of banana against salt stress by evaluation of peroxidases and polyphenoloxidases activities as well as amount of phenols synthesized in plants of 2 (young) and 12 (old) weeks. Salt solutions of 50 and 100 g/l were applied to neck of plants by watering. Results indicated an amplification of enzymatic activities in leaves of young [polyphenoloxidases, 547 (24%) 10-3ΔDO/min/mg prot] and old plants [peroxidases, 560 (4.5%) 10-3ΔDO/min/mg prot] with NaCl 50g/l treatment. Phenol content was higher in leaves [50 (old) and 55 (young) 10-3 mg AG/g mf] and roots [100 10-3 mg AG/g mf (young)] of plants with NaCl 50 g/l. In conclusion, NaCl can be used to mimic salt stress in plantain banana and, peroxidases, polyphenoloxidases and phenols as markers of plant adaptation.
Introduction: Maleo birds (Macrocephalonmaleo, SAL MULLER, 1846) are endemic animals of the island of Sulawesi which population continues to decline due to destruction and fragmentation of their habitat, as well as allegedly due to poaching and theft to the mothers and eggs. Objective: This study aimed to determine the sex of maleo birds through morphological and hormonal studies. Method:The study was conducted in the maleo bird conservation area of PT. Panca Amara Utama in Uso Village, Batui District, Banggai Regency, Central Sulawesi Province, from August 2016 to December 2018, by using 10 1-day-old maleo birds. Variables observed included cloaca morphology, macrocephalon and estrogen hormone concentration. Results:The cloaca of Maleo birds has a difference. The difference is in the protrusion on the top of the cloaca. The male Maleo birds have a protrusion in the cloaca while the females do not have it. Organs in the form of protrusion in the cloaca are thought to be a sign of male sex. There are differences in shape and size between the male and female macrocephalon, the males have about 3.96 ± 011 cm width in average with rounded shape while the females have about 3.20 ± 0.10 cm width in average with oval shape. Female maleo birds have a higher concentration of the hormone estrogen than males. Based on the variables mentioned above, it can be concluded that the determination of maleo sex can be done based on macrocephalon size and cloaca shape.Conclusions:The cloaca morphology, macrocephalon size and homone estrogen concentration can be used to determine the maleo sex in the captivity.
Livestock fattening means feeding the animals in order to obtain fast live weight gains in relatively short time (Alawa et al., 2008). Efficiency is the ratio or relationship between inputs and output. The study examined the technical efficiency and its determinants among cattle fattening enterprises in Kebbi state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 160 fatteners using the multistage sampling technique. A translog stochastic frontier production function model was employed for the analysis in which technical efficiency effects are specified to be a function of socioeconomic variables estimated using the maximum likelihood method. The results of the analysis revealed that medication, feeds, fattening animals, depreciation, water and transportation are the dominant variables that influenced the level of technical efficiency in cattle fattening with coefficient values of (0.053, 0.452, 6.804, 1.058, 0.986 and 0.197), respectively. Technical efficiency indices varied from 0.74 to 0.98%, with a mean of 0.90%, indicating that there was no wide gap between the efficiency of best technical efficient fatteners and that of the average fattener. It also revealed that the fatteners were not operating at the optimal efficiency level thus, the need to increase the scope. The result also showed that fattening experience and herd size influenced the level of technical efficiency with coefficients of (-0.011 and -1.260) at 1% while household size with coefficients of 0.009 at 10%. This implies that fattening experience and herd size increases the technical efficiency of fattening while household size decreases the technical efficiency of cattle fattening. It is recommended that for cattle fatteners to increase their technical efficiency, they will need to increase their herd size so as to gain from economies of scale.