The aim of this study is to analyse the efficiency of beef cattle
marketing which is delivered from Sumbawa Province to
Lombok Island, and to describe the marketing system. Number
of sample was 46 respondence consisting of 30 farmers, 10
middleman in livestock, 1 collecting trader, and 5 slaughterers
in Lombok Island. Observed variable consisted are marketing
margin, farmer's share, and marketing efficiency. Data was
analysed statistically. Result showed that there were 2
channels of marketing, firstly, farmer-middleman in livestockcollecting
trader-slaughterer in Lombok Island-consumer;
second channel was farmer-collecting trader-slaughterer in
Lombok Island-consumer. The highest marketing margin
found in the first channel was as much as Rp 1.517.500/cattle,
and the lowest margin found in the second channel was as low
as Rp 1.185.000/cattle. The highest farmer's share occurred in
the first channel was as much as 96.08% and the lowest was in
the second channel as low as 95.09%. the second channel was
the most efficient based on the efficiency index count, which
was 5.78%, however the first channel was 7.62%.
To explain the reasons for snail increasing production in Cameroon, their socioeconomic status, production system, management practices and production constraints were studied. Thus, 40 snail farmers were randomly selected from five subdivisions (16 from Buea, 12 from Limbe II, 8 from Muyuka, 2 from Limbe I and 2 from Tiko) in the study area. Snail rearing is predominated by females (57.69%). They are adults aged between 20 to above 61 years old, married (90.71%), all belonging to one religion, Christianity and had at least primary education. These farmers were either involved in livestock (51.83%) or crop farming (48.17) as main agricultural activity and are principally Bakweri (39.04%). Snails are mostly reared for the market and self-consumption (58.97%). Animals are mostly sold on the farm (83.33%) primarily during the dry season of the year for various reasons. The annual contribution of snail husbandry per household is 100000-150000 CFAF per year (200-300 USD). In the technical aspect, various housing type are applied with majority being trench pens (45.87%), the major species of snails reared was Archachatina marginata, reared by 92.69% under the semi intensive production system (98.00%). Few (35.63%) of the farmers are trained in snail farming. The most commonly used feeds is natural feed (leaves, fruits and tubers) and household waste. Concentrate supply (5.87%) is the main form of supplementation, and to a lesser extend calcium (1.14%) is use. A larger proportion (40.56%) of the farmers fed their animals on a daily basis and particularly in the morning (36.60%).Many (54.52%) did not serve water to their snails but those who did served, watered their animals on a daily basis (16.03%) as well. The major challenges faced by the snail farmers were; pest attack, predators, lack of techniques, lack of funds, lack of feeds, lack of water, lack of animal supply, slow growth rate and climate change. However, farmers wish to continue with the activity. Thus more people are encouraged to engage in snail farming as it contributes much to the family welfare.
The study was conducted to characterize village chicken production and husbandry practices in Dedo district, Jimma zone of Southwest Ethiopia. Three different agro- ecologies (high, mid and lowlands) of the district were purposively selected based on poultry population and accessibility. Stratified probability random sampling method was followed to select two peasant associations (PA) from each of the three agro-ecology and 30 households from each of the six PAs. Thus a total of 180 (6x30) households were used to collect the required data for the study. About 96.1% of the chicken found in the study area belongs to the Ethiopian non-descriptive indigenous breeds of chickens. The remaining, 3.9% and 0.6% are cross and exotic breeds, respectively. Even though village chicken production is an essential part of livestock production in the study area, there is a poor management practices such as poor feeding, improper housing, unimproved breeding methods and meager health care has been given for the chicken; so that the producers might not be benefited from the production. Since there is available high demand towards chicken and eggs in the study area, the sector should be improved through provision of appropriate intervention in health care, provision of better extension service, credit schemes and training opportunities. Further investigation into the constraints and potential of indigenous chicken based village poultry in the study area is highly encouraged.
Antifreeze (Ethylene glycol: EG), a
chemical substance derivatized from alcohol and
contaminating aquatic ecosystems as a potential
toxic pollutant, was investigated in the present study
for acute toxicity. Ethylene glycol is used to prevent
freezing in the motor vehicle engine cooling systems
and hot water production installations sunny, some
hot water heating installations in the world. So there
is a risk of contamination of the aquatic environment
with the environment in which EG is used.
Therefore, the toxic effects of this compound on
aquatic insights must be examined.
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were
selected for the bioassay experiments. The 96-h
LC50 was determined for the Rainbow trout. The
static acute toxicity tests were replicated as three
times and a total of 300 Rainbow trout were used in
bioassay tests. In addition, behavioral changes at
each ethylene glycol concentration was observed for
the individuals. Data obtained from the Antifreeze
acute toxicity test results were evaluated using the
Probit Analysis Statistical Method based on
Finney's Probit Analysis using a computer program.
The 96-h LC50 value for the rainbow trout was
estimated as 14.21 g/L.
The fate of hormone 17 α Methyl testosterone in the flesh of merchantable fish (greater than or equal to 250 g) and in the tilapia culture medium of the Senegal River Valley (Oreochromis niloticus) is studied in this publication. Fish fry of this species are fed for 28 days with a food supplemented with 17 α-methyl testosterone in the following proportions (30, 60 and 90 mg MT/ kg feed). After this period a non-hormonal food is fed to the fish for five months. The evaluation of hormone residues on fish flesh by ELISA was done in the lab of Prof. Grant VANDENBERG in Quebec, Canada by ELISA that of farmed water at LACOMEV of Inter States of Sciences and Veterinary Medicine School of Dakar by HPLC. The results of these analyzes indicate that low levels of MT in the flesh of market-sized fish 60 days after cessation of the supply of hormone-free feed to fish, and levels of MT concentrations in samples below detection limit (1.3 μg I mL).